e-Tandatangan dikenali secara meluas sebagai sah di sisi undang-undang di dunia. Ketahui lebih lanjut tentang kesahan e-Tandatangan di pelbagai negara daripada panduan ini.
Norway has access to the EU’s single market because of the European Economic Area (EEA) agreement signed in 1992 and follows eIDAS, the legal framework that recognizes eSignatures as legally valid in the EU.
eIDAS applied to Norway in 2016 and states that “An electronic signature shall not be denied legal effect and admissibility as evidence in legal proceedings solely on the grounds that it is in an electronic form or that it does not meet the requirements for qualified electronic signatures.” Following the eIDAS regulation, eSignatures are now legally valid in all EU member states.
Regulation (EU) No 910/2014 on electronic identification and trust services for electronic transactions in the internal market (the “eIDAS Regulation”)
The eIDAS regulation defines three types of eSignature (SES, AES, QES) and is a new regulation on electronic identification and trust services for electronic transactions in the European Single Market. It establishes a legal framework for people, companies (in particular small to mid-size enterprises) and public administrations to safely access services and execute transactions digitally across all the EU member states.
eIDAS entered into force on 17 September 2014 and applied from 1 July 2016. It repealed and replaced the Electronic Signatures Directive 1999/93/EC, a European Union directive on the use of eSignatures in electronic contracts within the EU.
Tandatangan elektronik standard (SES) merupakan kewujudan data elektronik yang bersambung secara logik kepada data elektronik lain (misalnya dokumen), yang digunakan oleh penandatangan data elektronik untuk tandatangan dokumen. Banyak alatan elektronik, termasuk kata laluan, kod PIN dan tandatangan diimbas boleh dianggap sebagai SES.
Tandatangan elektronik lanjutan (AES) mesti memastikan bahawa tandatangan dihubungkan dengan unik dan berupaya mengenal pasti penandatangan. Ia perlu dihasilkan menggunakan data penghasilan tandatangan elektronik yang boleh digunakan oleh penandatangan di bawah kawalan mutlak mereka, dengan tahap keyakinan yang tinggi.
A qualified electronic signature (QES) is a stricter form of AES and the only signature type given the same legal value as handwritten signatures. It is an advanced electronic signature with a qualified digital certificate that has been created by a qualified signature creation device (QSCD). The QSCD has to be issued by a qualified EU Trust Service Provider (TSP) on the European Union Trust List (EUTL.)
The law does not exclude specific types of agreements. However, certain types of agreements such as wills, court documents, land titles, may still require written, paper communications.